Friday, February 22, 2013

Pixels, DPI (dots per inch), Resolution and Image Sizes


dots = pixels on a computer monitor
dots = pixels


pixels = dots
pixel = PICture ELement = PICEL = PIXEL


resolution = number of pixels horizontally and vertically
resolution example: 
640 x 480 --> 640 pixels horizontal (width) x 480 pixels vertical (height)

Aspect Ratio

aspect ratio = ratio of horizontal to vertical pixel
common aspect ratios:
3:2 = 3 horizontal pixels for each 2 vertical pixels
4:3 = 4 horizontal to 3 vertical (typical for digital cameras & Standard-definition television (SDTV)
16:9 = 16 horizontal to 9 vertical pixels (typical for HDTV)

Frame rate (frame frequency)

frame rate of the device is the speed of production of unique consecutive images (frames).
frame rate units are in frames per second (FPS) and hertz (Hz) for progressive scan monitors.

Common Computer Screen Resolutions (pixel units)
640 x 480
800 x 600
1024 x 768
1280 x 1024
1600 x 1200
1600 x 1280
2048 x 1536
2560 x 2048
3072 x 2304
3200 x 2400
3200 x 2560
3840 x 3072
4096 x 3072
4800 x 3600
4800 x 3840
5120 x 4096
6400 x 4800
6400 x 5120
8000 x 6000
8000 x 6400

Megapixels (MP) pixel count of Digital Cameras

With aspect ratio of 4:3 for most cameras, 4/3 = 1.3333333, four parts for every 3 parts. Example 640/480 = 4/3 = 1.3333333. For computation purposes and derivation, from a 3 MP digital camera, multiply the horizontal pixel by the vertical pixel of the image to determine the total pixel count of the camera. Example,
3 MP: 2048 horizontal x 1536 vertical pixels = 3,145,728 pixels = 3 MP
4 MP: 2272 x 1712 = 3,889,664 = 4 MP
5 MP: 2592 x 1944 = 5,038,848 = 5 MP

Picture Resolution from Kodak Digital Camera:
8.0 MP (4:3): 3264 x 2448 pixels
7.1 MP (3:2): 3264 x 2176 pixels
6.0 MP (16:9): 3264 x 1836 pixels
5.0 MP (4:3): 2592 x 1944 pixels
3.1 MP (4:3): 2048 x 1536 pixels
2.2 MP (3:2): 1800 x 1200 pixels
2.1 MP (16:9): 1920 x 1080 pixels
1.2 MP (4:3): 1280 x 960 pixels

Video Capture Resolution from Kodak Digital Camera:
VGA (640 x 480 @ 30 fps)
QVGA (320 x 240 @ 30 fps)

Digital Television High Definition (HD) Video Formats (16:9 aspect ratio HDTV):
720p --> 1280 x 720 pixels
1080i --> 1920 x 1080 pixels
1080p --> 1920 x 1080 pixels (24, 25, 30, 50, 60 Hz frame rate)

Extra high-definition video
2000p --> 2,048 × 1,536 pixels (24 Hz frame rate)
2160p --> 3,840 × 2,160 pixels (60, 120 Hz frame rate)
2540p --> 4,520 × 2,540 pixels
4000p --> 4,096 × 3,072 pixels
4320p --> 7,680 × 4,320 pixels (60, 120 Hz frame rate)

Samsung digital camera storage image size:
10M: 3648 x 2736 pixels
8M: 3264 x 2448 pixels
7M: 3648 x 2052 pixels
5M: 2592 x 1944 pixels
3M: 2048 x 1536 pixels
2M: 1920 x 1080 pixels
1M: 1024 x 768 pixels

Digital Camera Picture Resolutions:
160 MP --> 21,250 x 7500 pixels [from Seitz (highest megapixel camera)]
120 MP --> 13,280 x 9,184 pixels (from Canon)
100 MP --> 11,547 X 8660 pixels
80 MP --> 10,328 x 7760 pixels
60 MP --> 8984 x 6732 pixels
50 MP --> 8176 x 6132 pixels
40 MP --> 7264 x 5440 pixels
36 MP --> 7360 x 4912 pixels
24 MP --> 6000 x 4000 pixels
20 MP --> 5120 x 3840 pixels
18 MP --> 5184 x 3456 pixels
16 MP --> 4592 x 3448 pixels
14 MP --> 4288 x 3216 pixels
12 MP --> 4000 x 3000 pixels
10 MP --> 3648 x 2736 pixels
8 MP --> 3264 x 2448 pixels
7 MP --> 3648 x 2052 pixels
6 MP --> 3000 x 2000 pixels

Photo Resolution of Smartphones:
8 MP --> 3264 x 2448 pixels
7 MP --> 3648 x 2052 pixels
6 MP --> 3000 x 2000 pixels
5 MP --> 2560 X 1920 pixels
4 MP --> 2560 X 1536 pixels
3 MP --> 2048 X 1536 pixels
2.4 MP --> 2048 X 1232 pixels
2 MP --> 1600 X 1200 pixels
1.5 MP --> 1600 X 960 pixels
0.5 MP --> 800 X 600 pixels
0.4 MP --> 800 X 480 pixels
0.3 MP --> 640 X 480 pixels

Maximum Print Sizes of Photos from Digital Cameras at 300 DPI
2MP: 1600 x 1200 --> 5.3 X 4.0 inches
3MP: 2048 x 1536 --> 6.8 X 5.1 inches
5MP: 2592 x 1944 --> 8.6 X 6.4 inches
7MP: 3072 x 2304 --> 10.2 X 7.6 inches
8MP: 3264 x 2448 --> 10.8 X 8.1 inches <-- 8X10 Wall Pictures at home
10MP: 3648 x 2736 --> 12.1 X 9.1 inches
12MP: 4000 x 3000 --> 13.3 X 10 inches
14MP: 4288 x 3216 --> 14.2 X 10.7 inches

How to convert from pixels to inches:

300 DPI is recommended for most prints by photo professionals. Conversion from pixels to inches depends on the dots per inch (dpi).

At 300 dpi printer output resolution:

4x6 inches (10x15 cm) prints:
4 inch x 300 dots/inch = 1200 dots = 1200 pixels width
6 inch x 300 dots/inch = 1800 dots = 1800 pixels height
4x6 inches = 1200 x 1800 pixels

5x7 inches (12.5 x 17.5 cm) prints:
5 x 300 = 1500 pixels width
7 x 300 = 2100 pixels height
5x7 inch = 1500 x 2100 pixels

8" x 10" (20x25 cm) prints:
8 x 300 = 2400 pixels width
10 x 300 = 3000 pixels height
8x10" = 2400 x 3000 pixels

Sunday, February 3, 2013

How to create music playlist for My Book Live network hard drive and play it on TV

1. Download the freeware Playlist Creator on

2. Install the Playlist Creator software on your computer.

3. Copy the mp3 music files in the folder: My Network Places\Public on My Book Live Network Storage\Shared Music.

4. Open Playlist Creator.

5. Click the Add Folder button on the top right.

6. Specify the source folder from which music files (mp3) will be taken to create a play list.

7. Use the up and down arrow to arrange the order of songs to play.

8. Use the Add Files button to add more files to the playlist.

9. On Save Location, select the folder on the My Book Live Network Drive where the playlist file will be saved.

10. Specify the desired name of your playlist.

11. Select .m3u for the type of playlist.

12. Click Create Playlist button.

13. To test the playlist, go to Smart Share (LG Smart TV) and then select MyBookLive-Twonky media server.

14. On Music, select Playlists (buttom right).

To edit a playlist that is already created, open the Playlist Creator program, click the Open button on the top to open and edit or add or remove a song from an existing playlist.

Saturday, February 2, 2013

How to view pdf, word, excel, rtf, text files and other computer documents on my TV

There are so many ways to display computer documents such as pdf, word (.doc), excel (.xls) or text (.txt) files on your TV. Modern smart TVs can play popular media audio, video and image formats. These new TVs can access these media files whether wired or wireless. They can also play and stream from media servers from DLNA compatible devices in your home network and network attached storage (NAS) hard drives (e.g. Western Digital My Book Live 3 TB Network Hard Drive or External Hard Drives and USB Flashdrives/Thumbdrives attached to a Wireless/Wired Media Router). These TVs can also accept input from USB and from HDMI inputs. There are numerous smartphone and tablet free apps to display the said document formats. You can connect your smartphone, tablet, iPhone or iPad through a wire or cable to view it on the TV. Although there is a growing number of tv apps, but there is no app at this time for viewing these files on the big screen in the living room. Of course you can use ebook readers such as Kindle to display text and pdf files, but the question at hand is being able to view these files at the comfort of the couch and the big TV screen.

How to display pdf, word, excel, text documents on your TV:


I. Extend Windows Desktop to a Television (tv) monitor or Projector
This method is common on most school classrooms and workplace settings. This setup require an S-Video cable or an HDMI cable and other devices and accessories. This also require some technical know-how. This solution works but there must be someone to operate the computer (to bring page down, open files, etc.)

II. Smartphone or Tablet connected through cable to the TV

This option also is possible to view and read the files through your mobile devices but again requiring user intervention of the device. Added to this is the touch screen work that you have to do.

III. Document to Image Converter

Because modern tv's can stream photos and pictures with reliable speed and ease, you can convert your documents into images and view them on the biggest monitor in your home, your TV. There are so many freeware softwares on the internet to convert pdf, word (doc), excel or text files to image (jpeg, jpg, png, gif, bmp, etc.). There are also many free online pdf and word converters online. An example of free pdf to image converter is Kvisoft Pdf to Image converter. Another is the free Nemo Pdf to Word converter, Word to PDF and vice-versa. One problem I find with this method is that I want to enlarge and adjust the font so that it is more readable on the tv but it is hard to find a good editor to do so. I tried to adjust the size and resolution of the output image but I find the text fonts small and hard to read on the TV.

IV. Screen Capture
This method works for me. There are so many great screen capture utilities on the net (PicPick is a good example). I can adjust the font or zoom of the document (so that it is large enough and readable when I read it on the TV) and then capture it using the free software. The size of the images are small (100 - 200 KB) and yet it is viewable clearly on the TV. After capturing the documents into image files, you can then copy these files to the NAS server and share them to the home network. After copying and sharing, your DLNA-compatible TV should be able to open and view these files. You can also save these pictures to a USB and then plug them on your TV or home theatre that is connected to your Tv. Afterwards, you can browse them using the Photo browser in your appliance. 

V. Other Methods
Other solutions on how to display documents to your TV is by converting them to video or movie files. The downside of this method is the large size and long time of conversions. You can also burn your documents on a disc and play them using a DVD or Bluray player to your TV.

How to listen to your documents in your MP3 player, TV or Home Theatre Entertainment System:

If you find your eyes and yourself sleepy and tired of reading word, pdf or text files in front of your computer, tablet or ebook reader, why don't you sit in your couch and hear your documents play instead or lie down in your bed and listen to them with your MP3, MP4 player or iPod? Balabolka is one of the best free Text-To-Speech (TTS) program. It can read the clipboard content, view and read the text from DOC, PDF, TXT, RTF, EPUB, HTML, FB2, ODT, MOBI, AZW, CHM, DjVu, LIT and PRC files. You can also customize font and background color as well as control reading from the system tray or by the global hotkeys. In order to hear your documents in your Mp3 player, TV or Streaming Media Player in your living room, this software allows the on-screen text to be saved as audio files in MP3, WAV, OGG or WMA file formats. Before you save, you can adjust the Rate or Speed of reading and the Pitch of the voice. [I find Rate = -1 and Pitch = -1 suitable and best (for me)].

You can then copy these audio files to your Mp3 or MP4 players or any mobile devices so that you can hear them wherever you go. You can also save and share these files to your home network hard drive, media server, or network attached storage devices and stream, play and listen to your documents in the comfort of your sofa in your living room while drinking some refreshments and eating some snacks!